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Full text of "Mathematical And Physical Papers - Iii"

98     ON  THE  EFFECT  OF THE  INTEKNAL  FRICTION  OF FLUIDS
Experiences destinees a determiner la coherence des fluides et les lois de leur resistance dans les mouvements tres-lents, which will be found in the 3rd Volume of the Mtmoires de I'Institut, p. 246. The experiments which I shall first consider are those which relate to the oscillations of disks suspended in water with their planes horizontal In these experiments the disk operated upon was attached to the lower extremity of a vertical cylinder of copper, not quite half an inch in diameter, the axis of which passed through the centre of the disk. The cylinder was suspended by a fine wire attached to its upper extremity. The under portion of the cylinder, together with the attached disk, were immersed in water, the disk at the bottom of the cylinder being immersed to the depth of 4 or 5 centimetres below the surface. The upper portion carried a horizontal metallic graduated disk, by means of which the arc of oscillation could be read off, and which, on account of its size and weight, mainly determined the inertia of the system, so that the time of oscillation in the different experiments was nearly the same. The observations were taken as follows. The whole system was turned very slowly round by applying the hands of the graduated disk, taking care not to derange the vertical position of the suspending wire. The arc through which the system had been turned was read by means of the graduation, or rather the system was turned through an arc previously fixed on ; the system was then left to itself, and the arc again read off to a certain number of oscillations. Thus it was the decrement of the arc of oscillation that was observed; the time of oscillation was indeed also observed, but only approximately, for the sake of determining a subsidiary quantity required in the calculation. Indeed, it will be easily seen that the experiments were not adapted to determine the effect of the fluid on the time of oscillation. The decrement of arc so determined had to be corrected for the effect of the imperfect elasticity of the wire, and of the resistance of the air against the graduated disk, and of the water against the portion of the copper cylinder immersed. The amount of the correction was determined by repeating the observation when the lower disk had been removed.
It appeared from the experiments, first, that with the same disk immersed, the successive amplitudes of oscillation decreased in geometric progression; secondly, that with different disks the